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עשן עצים – מקורות וקישורים

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רופאים ומדענים כנגד קמיני עץ – https://woodsmokepollution.org/references.html

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זיהום מחלקיקים זעירים ובריאות

עשן עצים הוא זיהום מחלקיקים

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ארגונים ומידע כללי

זיהום מחלקיקים זעירים ובריאות

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Ailshire J., Crimmins E. (2014). Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among Older US AdultsAmerican Journal of Epidemiology, 180(4), 359–366.

American Lung Association. State of the Air 2013: Particle Pollution.

Barrett J.R. (2016). Connecting PM2.5 Exposure to Insulin Resistance: Oxidative Stress May Be an Intermediate StepEnvironmental  Health Perspectives, 124, A236.

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Bernatsky S., Fournier M., Pineau C.A., Clarke A.E., Vinet E., Smargiassi A. (2010). Associations Between Ambient Fine Particulate Levels and Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(1), 45–49.

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Cesaroni G., Francesco F., Stafoggia M., Andersen A.J., Badaloni C., Beelen R., Caracciolo B., de Faire U., Erbel R., Eriksen K.T., et al. (2014). Long Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Acute Coronary Events: Prospective Cohort Study and Meta-Analysis in 11 European Cohorts from the ESCAPE ProjectBMJ, 348:f7412.

Chalbot M.G., Jones T.A., Kavouras I.G. (2014). Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 ReductionsInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 7442–7455.

Chen J., Wang X., Wellenius G., Serre M., Driscoll I., et al. (2015). Ambient Air Pollution and Neurotoxicity on Brain Structure: Evidence from Women's Health Initiative Memory StudyAnnals of Neurology, 78(3), 466–476.

Dennekamp M., Akram M., Abramson M., Tonkin A., Sim M., et al. (2010). Outdoor Air Pollution as a Trigger for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac ArrestsEpidemiology, 21(4), 494–500.

Desikan, A. (2017). Outdoor Air Pollution as a Possible Modifiable Risk Factor to Reduce Mortality in Post-Stroke PopulationNeural Regeneration Research, 12(3), 351–353.

Desikan A., Crichton S., Hoang U., Barratt B., Beevers S.D., Kelly F.J., Wolfe C.D.A. (2016). Effect of Exhaust- and Nonexhaust-Related Components of Particulate Matter on Long-Term Survival After StrokeStroke, 47(12), 2916–2922.

Di Q., Wang Y., Zanobetti A., Wang Y., Koutrakis P., Choirat F.D., Schwartz J.D. (2017). Air Pollution and Mortality in the Entire Medicare PopulationNew England Journal of Medicine, 376, 2513–2522.

Dockery D., Pope C., Xu X., SpenglerJ., Ware J., et al. (1993). An Association Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. CitiesThe New England Journal of Medicine, 329(24), 1753–1759.

Dominici F., Peng R., Bell M., Pham L., McDermott A., et al. (2006). Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admission for Cardiovascular and Respiratory DiseasesJAMA, 295(10), 1127–1134.

Gehling W., Dellinger B. (2013). Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Their Lifetimes in PM2.5.Environmental Science & Technology, 47(15), 8172.

Genc S., Zadeoglulari Z., Fuss S.H., Genc K. (2012). The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous SystemJournal of Toxicology, 2012, 782462.

Harrabi I., Rondeau V., Dartigues J., Tessier J,  Filleul L. (2006). Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Systolic Blood Pressure: A Population-Based ApproachEnvironmental Research, 101(1), 89–93.

Huttunen K., Siponen T., Salonen I., Yli-Tuomi T., Aurela M., et al. (2012). Low-Level Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter is Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Disease PatientsEnvironmental Research, 116, 44–51.

Jacobs L., Buczynska A., Walgraeve C., Delcloo A., Potgieter-Vermaak S., Van Grieken R., Demeestere K., Dewulf J., Van Langenhove H., De Backer H., Nemery B., Nawrot T.S. (2012). Acute Changes in Pulse Pressure in Relation to Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution in Elderly PersonsEnvironmental Research, 117, 60–67.

Janke K., Propper C., Henderson J. (2009). Do Current Levels of Air Pollution Kill? The Impact of Air Pollution on Population Mortality in England. 18(9), Health Economics,1031–1055.

Katanoda K., Sobue T., Satoh H., Tajima K., Suzuki T., et al. (2011). An Association Between Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality from Lung Cancer and Respiratory Diseases in JapanJournal of Epidemiology, 21(2), 132–143.

Kioumourtzoglou M., Schwartz J.D., Weisskopf M.G., Melly S.J., Wang Y., Dominici F., Zanobetti A. Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in the Northeastern United StatesEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 124, 23–29.

Lepeule J., Laden F., Dockery D., Schwartz J. (2012). Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(7), 965.

Liao D., Creason J., Shy C., Williams R., Watts R., et al. (1999).  Daily Variation of Particulate Air Pollution and Poor Cardiac Autonomic Control in the ElderlyEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 107(7), 521-525.

Link M., Luttmann-Gibson H., Schwartz J., Mittleman M., Wessler B., Gold D., Dockery D.,  Laden F. (2013). Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Atrial FibrillationJournal of the American College of Cardiology. 62(9), 816–825.

Lipsett M.J., Ostro B.D., Reynolds P., Goldberg D., Hertz A., Jerrett M., Smith D.F., Garcia C., Chang E.T., Bernstein L. (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Disease in the California Teachers Study CohortAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Citical Care Medicine, 184(7), 828–835.

Liu C., Xu X., Bai Y., Wang T.Y., Rao X., Wang A., Sun L., Ying Z., Gushchina L., Maiseyeu A., Morishita M., Sun Q., Harkema J.R., Rajagopalan S. (2014). Air Pollution–Mediated Susceptibility to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Influence of CCR2 Pathways in MiceEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 122, 17–26.

Ljungman P., Mittleman M. (2014). Ambient Air Pollution and StrokeStroke, 45(12), 3734–3741.

Loeb M.B. (2003). Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Older People: The Need for a Broader PerspectiveJournal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 539–543.

Matsuo R., Michikawa T., Ueda K., Ago T., Nitta H., Kitazono T., Kamouchi M. (2016). Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Ischemic StrokeStroke, 47(12), 3032–3034.

McClellan R. (2002) Setting Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate MatterToxicology, 181, 329–347.

Migliore L., Coppedè F. (2009). Environmental-Induced Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Disorders and AgingMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1), 73–84.

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Mitka M. (2006). Health Experts Denounce EPA’s Soot LimitsJAMA. 296(17), 2078.

Moulton P., Yang, W. (2012). Air pollution, Oxidative Stress, and Alzheimer's DiseaseJournal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 472751–472759.

Nelin T., Joseph A., Gorr M., Wold L. (2012). Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular systemToxicology Letters, 208(3), 293–299.

Oberdörster G., Sharp Z., Atudorei V., Elder A., Gelein R., et al. (2004). Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles to the BrainInhalation Toxicology, 16(6–7), 437–445.

Orioli R., Cremona G., Ciancarella L., Solimini A.G. (2018). Association Between PM1, PM2.5, NO2, O3 and Self-Reported Diabetes in Italy: A Cross-Sectional Ecological StudyPLoS One, 13(1):e0191112.

Ostro B., Wen-Ying G., Broadwin R., Green S., Lipsett M. (2007). The Effects of Components of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality in California: Results from CALFINEEnvironmental Health Perspective, 115(1), 13–19.

Oudin A., Segersson D., Adolfsson R., Forsberg B. (2018). Association Between Air Pollution from Residential Wood Burning and Dementia Incidence in a Longitudinal Study in Northern SwedenPLoS ONE, 13(6): e0198283.

Rosenthal F., Carney J., Olinger M. (2008). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and airborne fine particulate matter: a case-crossover analysis of emergency medical services data in Indianapolis, IndianaEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 116(5), 631–636.

Roux J., Bard D., Le Pabic E., Segala C., Reis J., Ongagna J.C., de Sèze J., Leray E. (2017). Air Pollution by Particulate Matter PM10 May Trigger Multiple Sclerosis RelapsesEnvironmental Research, 156, 404–410.

Schneider A., Neas L., Herbst M., Case M., Williams R., Cascio W., et al. (2008). Endothelial Dysfunction: Associations with Exposure to Ambient Fine Particles in Diabetic IndividualsEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 116(12), 1666–1674.

Schneider A., Neas L., Graff D., Herbst M., Cascio W., Schmitt M., et al. (2010). Association of Cardiac and Vascular Changes with Ambient PM2.5 in Diabetic IndividualsParticle and Fibre Toxicology, 7, 14.

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Shah A.S.V., Langrish J.P., Nair H., McAllister D.A., Hunter A.L., Donaldson K., Newby D.E., Mills N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Lancet, 382(9897): 1039–1048.

Shaw J. (2005). Clearing the Air: How Epidemiology, Engineering, and Experiment Finger Fine Particles as Airborne KillersHarvard Magazine, May-June 2005.

Shi L., Zanobetti A., Kloog I., Coull B., Koutrakis P., et al. (2016). Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic Effects in a Population-Based StudyEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 124(1), 46–52.

Shrey K., Suchit A., Deepika D., Shruti K., Vibha R. (2011). Air Pollutants: The Key Stages in the Pathway Towards the Development of Cardiovascular DisordersEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 31(1), 1–9.

Totlandsdal A.I., Skomedal T., Låg M., Osnes J., Refsnes M. (2008). Pro-inflammatory Potential of Ultrafine Particles in Mono- and Co-Cultures of Primary Cardiac CellsToxicology, 247(1), 23–32.

Turner M., Krewski D., Pope 3rd C., Chen Y., Gapstur S., et al. (2011). Long-term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never-SmokersAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184(12), 1374–1381.

von Bornstaedt D., Kunz A., Endres M. (2014). Impact of Particulate Matter Exposition on the Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Epidemiologic Evidence and Putative MechanismsJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 34(2), 215–220.

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Xu X., Liu C., Xu Z., Tzan K., Zhong M., et al. (2011). Long-term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Pollution Induces Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Alteration in Adipose TissueToxicological Sciences, 124(1), 88–98.

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Zanobetti A., Dominici F., Wang Y., Schwartz J.D. (2014). A National Case-Crossover Analysis of the Short-term Effect of PM2.5 on Hospitalizations and Mortality in Subjects with Diabetes and Neurological DisordersEnvironmental Health, 13(38).

 עשן עצים הוא זיהום מחלקיקים

Airparif and Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (2012). Source Apportionmnet of Airborne Particles in the Ile-de-France Region, Final Report.

Bari A., Baumbach G., Kuch B., Scheffknecht G. (2011). Air Pollution in Residential Areas from Wood-fired HeatingAerosol and Air Quality Research, 11, 749–757.

Bari A., Baumbach G., Kuch B., Scheffknecht G. (2010). Temporal Variation and Impact of Wood Smoke Pollution on a Residential Area in Southern GermanyAtmospheric Environment, 44(31), 3823–3832.

Bari A., Bennett D., McKone T., Evans J., Nazaroff W., Margni M., Jolliet O., Smith K. (2002). Defining Intake FractionAmerican Chemical Society.

Boman B.C., Forsberg A.B., Järvholm B.G. (2003). Adverse Health Effects from Ambient Air Pollution in Relation to Residential Wood Combustion in Modern SocietyScandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(4), 251–260.

Borrego C., Valente J., Carvalho A., Sá E., Lopes M., Miranda A.I. (2010). Contribution of Residential Wood Combustion to PM10 Levels in PortugalAtmospheric Environment, 44(5), 642–651.

Caseiro A., Bauer H., Schmidl C., Pio C.A., Puxbaum H. (2009). Wood Burning Impact on PM10 in Three Austrian RegionsAtmospheric Environment, 43(3), 13, 2186–2195.

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective (PDF download)

Davis N. (2017, January 25). London on Pollution ‘High Alert’ Due to Cold Air, Traffic, and Wood BurningThe Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com.

Emergency Measures Unveiled to Combat Smog over Greek Cities (2013). Kathimerini English Edition. Retrieved from ekathimerini.com.

Evans G.J., Jeong C. (2007). Data Analysis and Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Golden, British Columbia using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research University of Toronto.

Fairley D. (2010). Sources of Bay Area Fine Particles: 2010 Update and Trends. Publication of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

Favez O., Cachier H., Sciare J., Sarda-Estève R., Martinon L. (2009). Evidence for a Significant Contribution of Wood Burning Aerosols to PM2.5 During the Winter Season in Paris, France. Atmospheric Environment, 43(22–23), 3640–3644.

Fuller G.W., Tremper A.H., Baker T.D., Yttri K.E., Butterfield D. (2014). Contribution of Wood Burning to PM10 in London. Atmospheric Environment, 87, 87–94.

Genberg J., Hyder M., Stenström K., Bergström R., Simpson D., Fors E.O., Jönsson J.Å., Swietlicki E. (2011). Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosol in Southern SwedenAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 11387–11400.

Gilmore H. (2014) State’s Top Doctor Says We Should Consider Banning Wood Fire HeatersThe Sydney Morning Herald.

Glasius M., Ketzel M., Whåhlin P., Jensen B., Mønster J., Berkowicz R., Palmgren F. (2006). Impact of Wood Combustion on Particle Levels in a Residential Area in DenmarkAtmospheric Environment, 40, 7115–7124.

Hibberd M.F., Selleck P.W., Keywood M.D., Cohen D.D., Stelcer E., Atanacio A.J. (2013). Upper Hunter Particle Characterisation Study. CSIRO, Australia.

Janssen N.A.H, Hoek G., Simic-Lawson M., Fischer P., van Bree L., et al. (2011). Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119 (12), 1691–1699.

Jeong C., Evans G.J., Dann T. , Graham M., Herod D., Dabek-Zlotorzynska E., Mathieu D., Ding L. Wang D. (2008). Influence of Biomass Burning on Wintertime Fine Particulate Matter: Source Contribution at a Valley Site in Rural British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 3684–3699.

Kleeman M.J., Riddle S.G., Robert M.A., Jakober C.A., Fine P.M., Hays M.D., Schauer J.J., Hannigan M.P. (2009). Source Apportionment of Fine (PM1.8) and Ultrafine (PM0.1) Airborne Particulate Matter during a Severe Winter Pollution EpisodeEnvironmental Science and Technology, 43(2), 272–279.

Knapton S. (2017, January 25). Air Pollution in London Passes Levels in Beijing … and Wood Burners are Making the Problem WorseThe Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk.

Kotchenruther R.A. (2016). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 at Multiple Northwest U.S. Sites: Assessing Regional Winter Wood Smoke Impacts from Residential Wood CombustionAtmospheric Environment, 142, 210–219.

Kreci P., Hedberg Larsson E., Ström J., Johansson C. (2008). Contribution of Residential Wood Combustion and Other Sources to Hourly Winter Aerosol in Northern Sweden Determined by Positive Matrix FactorizationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 3639–3653.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Air Quality Division (2012). Investigation of the Impact of Burning Upon Ambient PM2.5 Levels in Owosso During November 2011.

Naeher L., Brauer M., Lipsett M., Zelikoff J., Simpson C., et al. (2007). Woodsmoke Health Effects: A ReviewInhalation Toxicology, 19(1), 67–106.

Plejdrup M.S., Nielsen O., Brandt J. (2016) Spatial Emission Modelling for Residential Wood Combustion in DenmarkAtmospheric Environment, 144, 389–396.

Reisen F., Meyer C.P., Keywood M.D. (2013). Impact of Biomass Burning Sources on Seasonal Aerosol Air QualityAtmospheric Environment, 67, 437–447.

Ries F., Marshall J., Brauer M. (2009) Intake Fraction of Urban Wood SmokeEnvironmental Science & Technology, 43(13), 4701–4706.

Robinson D. (2015). 2.4 Times More PM2.5 Pollution from Domestic Wood Burning than TrafficBMJ350:h2757.

Scauzillo S. (2015, January 30). Why Your Fireplace is Ruining the EnvironmentSan Gabriel Valley Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.sgvtribune.com.

Sigsgaard T., Forsberg B., Annesi-Maesano I., Blomberg A, Bølling A, Boman C. et al. (2015). Health Impacts of Anthropogenic Biomass Burning in the Developed WorldEuropean Respiratory Journal, 46(6), 1577–88.

Szidat S., Prévôt A., Sandradewi J., Alfarra, M., Synal H., et al. (2007). Dominant Impact of Residential Wood Burning on Particulate Matter in Alpine Valleys During WinterGeophysical Research Letters, 34(5).

Thatcher T.L., Kirchstetter T.W., Malejan C.J., Ward C.E. (2014). Infiltration of Black Carbon Particles from Residential Woodsmoke into Nearby HomesOpen Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 111–120.

Thatcher T.L., Kirchstetter T.W., Tan S.H., Malejan C.J. and Ward C.E. (2014). Near-Field Variability of Residential Woodsmoke ConcentrationsAtmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 622-635.

Thatcher T.L., Kirchstetter T.W., et al. (2011). Assessing Near-Field Exposures from Distributed Residential Wood Smoke Combustion Sources. Prepared for California Air Resources Board and California Environmental Protection Agency.

Trompetter W.J., Davy P.K., Markwitz D.A. (2010). Influence of Environmental Conditions on Carbonaceous Particle Concentrations within New ZealandJournal of Aerosol Science, 41(1), 134–142.

United States EPA (2009). Final Report: Polar Organic Compounds in Fine Particles from the New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut Regional Airshed.

Wang Q., Shao M., Zhang Y., Wei Y., Hu M., Guo S. (2009). Source Apportionment of Fine Organic Aerosols in Beijing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 8573–8585.

Wang Y., Hopke P.K. (2014). Is Alaska Truly the Great Escape from Air Pollution? – Long Term Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, AlaskaAerosol and Air Quality Research, 14, 1875–1882.

Ward T. (2013). The Fairbanks, Alaska PM2.5 Source Apportionment Research Study Winters 2005/2006-2012/2013, and Summer 2012, Final Report Amendments 6 and 7.

Ward T.,  Lange T. (2010). The Impact of Wood Smoke on Ambient PM2.5 in Northern Rocky Mountain Valley Communities. Environmental Pollution, 158(3), 723–729.

Washington State Department of Ecology Air Quality Program (2009). Health Effects and Economic Impacts of Fine Particle Pollution in Washington. Publication number: 09‐02‐021.

Yli-Tuomi T., Siponen T., Taimisto R.P., Aurela M., Teinlila K., Hillamo R., Pekkanen J., Salonen R.O., Lanki T. (2015). Impact of Wood Combustion for Secondary Heating and Recreational Purposes on Particulate Air Pollution in a Suburb in FinlandEnvironmental Science and Technology, 49 (7), 4089–4096.

Zheng M., Cass G.R., Schauer J.J., Edgerton E.S. (2002). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in the Southeastern United States Using Solvent-Extractable Organic Compounds as TracersEnvironmental Science and Technology. 36(11), 2361–2371.

Zheng M., Cass G.R., Ke L., Wang F., Schauer J.J., Edgerton E.S., Russell A.G. (2007). Source Apportionment of Daily Fine Particulate Matter at Jefferson Street, Atlanta, GA, During Summer and WinterJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57(2), 228–242

ההשפעות הבריאותיות של עשן העצים

Arrieta O., Campos-Parra A.D., Zuloaga C., Avilés A., Sánchez-Reyes R., Manríquez M.E., Covián-Molina E., Martínez-Barrera L., Meneses A., Cardona A., Borbolla-Escoboza J.R. (2012). Clinical and Pathological Characteristics, Outcome, and Mutational Profiles Regarding Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Related to Wood Smoke Exposure. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 7(8), 1228–1234.

Awji E., Chand H., Bruse S., Smith K., Colby J., et al. (2015).  Wood Smoke Enhances Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation by Inducing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor in Airway Epithelial CellsAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 52(3), 377.

Barregard L., Sällsten G., Gustafson P., Andersson L., Johansson L., Basu S., Stingendal L. (2006). Experimental Exposure to Wood-Smoke Particles in Healthy Humans: Effects on Markers of Inflammation, Coagulation, and Lipid PeroxidationInhalation Toxicology, 18(11), 845–853.

Beard J.D., Beck C., Graham R., Packham S.C., Traphagan M., Giles R.T., Morgan J.G.(2012). Winter Temperature Inversions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Salt Lake County, Utah, 2003–2008Environmental Health Perspectives 120:1385–1390.

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Boman C., Forsberg B., Sandström T. (2006). Shedding New Light on Wood Smoke: a Risk Factor for Respiratory HealthEuropean Respiratory Journal, 27, 446–447.

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Chafe Z., Brauer M., Héroux M., Klimont Z., Lanki T., Salonen R., Smith K. (2015). Residential Heating with Wood and Coal: Health Impacts and Policy Options in Europe and North America. World Health Organization regional office for Europe.

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Pozo K., Estellano V., Harner T., Diaz-Robles L., Cereceda-Balic F., et al. (2015). Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Using Passive Air Sampling in the Atmosphere of One of the Most Wood-Smoke-Polluted Cities in Chile: The Case Study of TemucoChemosphere, 134, 475–481.

Quaß U., Fermann M., Bröker G. (2000).  Steps Towards a European Dioxin Emission InventoryChemosphere, 40(9–11), 1125–1129.

Reimann C., Ottesen R.T., Andersson M., Arnoldussen A., Koller F., Englmaier P. (2008). Element Levels in Birch and Spruce Wood Ashes — Green Energy? Science of the Total Environment. 393(2–3), 191–197.

Ribière C., Peyret P., Parisot N., Darcha C., Déchelotte P., et al. (2016). Oral Exposure to Environmental Pollutant Benzo[a]pyrene Impacts the Intestinal Epithelium and Induces Gut Microbial Shifts in Murine ModelScientific Reports, 6, 31027.

Rogge W., Hildemann L., Mazurek M., Cass G., Simoneit B. (1998). Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol. 9. Pine, Oak, and Synthetic Log Combustion in Residential FireplacesEnvironmental Science & Technology, 32(1), 13–22.

Schauer J.J., Kleeman M.J., Cass G.R., Simoneit B.  (2001). Measurement of Emissions from Air Pollution Sources. 3. C1−C29 Organic Compounds from Fireplace Combustion of WoodEnvironmental Science and Technology, 35 (9), 1716–1728.

Söderberg T., Johansson A.,  Gref R. (1996). Toxic Effects of Some Conifer Resin Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Human Epithelial and Fibroblast CellsToxicology, 107(2), 99–109.

State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Air Toxics Monitoring in Klamath Falls.

Tiitta P., Leskinen A., Hao L., Yli-Pirilä P., Kortelainen M., et al. (2016). Transformation of Logwood Combustion Emissions in a Smog Chamber: Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol and Changes in the Primary Organic Aerosol Upon Daytime and Nighttime AgingAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 13251 – 13269.

Tully M., Shi R. (2013). New Insights in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis—Role of Acrolein in Neuronal and Myelin DamageInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(10), 20037–20047.

University of Leicester. (2017, March 2). Air Pollution Can Alter the Effectiveness of Antibiotics and Increases the Potential of Disease, New Study Reveals. Science Daily, www.sciencedaily.com.

Vinggaard A.M., Hnida C., Larsen J.C. (2000). Environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Affect Androgen Receptor Activation in VitroToxicology, 145(2–3), 173–183.

Wang Q.,  Xue Y. (2015). Characterization of Solid Tumors Induced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in MiceMedical Science Monitor Basic Research, 21, 81–85.

Wheat L., Haberzettl P., Hellmann J., Baba S., Bertke M., et al. (2011). Acrolein Inhalation Prevents Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Induced Mobilization of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ Cells in MiceArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31(7), 1598–1606.

White A.J., Bradshaw P.T., Herring A.H., Teitelbaum S.L., Beyea J., Stellman S.D., et al. (2016). Exposure to Multiple Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer IncidenceEnvironment International, 89–90, 185–192.

White, A.J., Chen, J., McCullough, L.E., Xu, X., Teitelbaum, S.L., Neugut, A.I., Terry, M.B., Hibshoosh, H., Santella, R.M., Gammon, M.D. (2015). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA Adducts and Breast Cancer: Modification by Gene Promoter Methylation in a Population-Based StudyCancer Causes and Control, (12):1791–802.

Williams R., Knibbs L. (2016). Daily Personal Exposure to Black Carbon: A Pilot StudyAtmospheric Environment, 132, 296–299.

Wang Q., Xue Y. (2015). Characterization of Solid Tumors Induced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in MiceMedical Science Monitor Basic Research, 21, 81–85.

Wu C.Y., Cabrera-Rivera O., Dettling J., Asselmeier D., McGeen D., Ostrander A., Lax J., et al. An Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene Air Emissions in the Great Lakes Region. US EPA.

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The impact of domestic wood burning on personal, indoor and outdoor levels of 1,3- butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. 2007. Gustafson P, Barregard L, Strandberg B, and Sallsten G. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 9:23–32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17213939

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העלות האמיתית של שריפת עצים

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective.

Fisher G., Kjellstrom T.,  Woodward A., Hales S., Town I., et al. (2005) Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand: Christchurch Pilot Study. Health Research Council Ministry for the Environment Ministry of Transport.

Fuchs V.R., Frank S.R. (2002). Air Pollution and Medical Care Use by Older Americans: A Cross-Area AnalysisHealth Affairs, 21(6), 207–214.

Haluza D., Kaiser A., Moshammer H., Flandorfer C., Kundi M., et al. (2012). Estimated Health Impact of a Shift from Light Fuel to Residential Wood-Burning in Upper AustriaJournal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22(4), 339–343.

Khan L., Parton K., Doran H. (2007). Cost of Particulate Air Pollution in Armidale: A Clinical Event Survey[online]. Environmental Health, 7(2), 11–21.

Lighthall D., Nunes D., Tyner T. (2009). Environmental Health Evaluation of Rule 4901: Domestic Wood Burning, A Case Study of the Fresno/Clovis and Bakersfield Metropolitan Areas. The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District.

New South Wales EPA. Wood Smoke Amendment Q&As.

Robinson D. (2005). Air Pollution in Australia: Review of Costs, Sources and Potential SolutionsHealth Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 16(3).

Robinson D., Monro J., Campbell E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country Town. Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Saffari A., Daher N., Samara C., Voutsa D., Kouras A., Manoli E., Karagkiozidou O., Vlachokostas C., Moussiopoulos N., Shafer M.M., Schauer J.J., Sioutas C. (2013). Increased Biomass Burning Due to the Economic Crisis in Greece and Its Adverse Impact on Wintertime Air Quality in ThessalonikiEnvironmental Science & Technology. 47(23), 13313-13320.

Sarigiannis D., Karakitsios S., Kermenidou M. (2015). Health Impact and Monetary Cost of Exposure to Particulate Matter Emitted from Biomass Burning in Large CitiesScience of The Total Environment, 524, 319–330.

Shah A.S.V., Langrish J.P., Nair H., McAllister D.A., Hunter A.L., Donaldson K., Newby D.E., Mills N.L. (2013). Global Association of Air Pollution and Heart Failure: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Lancet, 382(9897), 1039–1048.

Sigsgaard T., Forsberg B., Annesi-Maesano I., Blomberg A., Bølling A, Boman C. (2015). Health Impacts of Anthropogenic Biomass Burning in the Developed WorldThe European Respiratory Journal, 46(6):1577–88.

Taxing wood-burning stoves could save lives and money (March 1, 2016). CPH Post Online. Retrieved from: http://cphpost.dk.

Wellenius G., Schwartz J., Mittleman M. (2006).  Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure in Seven United States Cities. The American Journal of Cardiology, 97(3), 404–408.

קמינים באזורי מגורים

Calabrese M., Quarantotto M., Cantaluppi C., Fasson A., Bogoni P. (2015). Quality Characteristics and Radioactive Contamination of Wood Pellet Imported in ItalyOpen Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 183-19.

Castro A., Calvo A.I., Blanco-Alegre C., Oduber F., Alves C., et al. (2018). Impact of the Wood Combustion in an Open Fireplace on the Air Quality of a Living Room: Estimation of the Respirable Fraction. Science of the Total Environment, 628–629, 169–176.

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective. (PDF download)

Desideri D., Rongoni A., Roselli C., Saetta D., Feduzi L. (2012). Analytical Methods for the Determination of 137Cs and 9Sr in Ash of Fuel Pellets Used in ItalyMicrochemical Journal, 103, 131–134.

Eriksson A.C., Nordin E.Z., Nyström R., Pettersson E., Swietlicki E., Bergvall C., Westerholm R., Boman C., Pagels J.H. (2014). Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass SpectrometryEnvironmental Science and Technology, 48, 7143−7150.

Fine P., Cass G., Simoneit, B. (2004). Chemical Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from the Wood Stove Combustion of Prevalent United States Tree SpeciesEnvironmental Engineering Science, 21(6), 705.

Fisher L., Houck J., Tiegs P., McGaughey J. (2000). Long – Term Performance of EPA-Certified Phase 2 Woodstoves, Klamath Falls and Portland, Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Happo M., Uski O., Jalava P., Kelz J., Brunner T., Hakulinen P., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Kosma V., et al. (2013). Pulmonary Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the Mouse Lung After Exposure to PM Samples from Biomass Heating Appliances of Old and Modern TechnologiesScience of The Total Envirnoment, 443: 256–266.

Houck J.E., Pitzman L.Y., Tiegs P. (2008). Emission Factors for New Certified Residential Wood Heaters. Presented at the 17th International Emission Inventory Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Houck J.E. (2009). Efficiency: Pick a Number, Any NumberHearth and Home, March 2009, 148.

Houck, J.E. (2017). Straight TalkHearth and Home, May 2017, 38–45.

Knickmeyer E. (2015, January 19). Coughing Neighbors Make Bay Area Rethink Outdoor CookingThe Mercury News. Retrieved from http://www.mercurynews.com.

Leskinen J., Tissari J., Uski O.J., Jokiniemi J. (2014). Fine Particle Emissions in Three Different Combustion Conditions of a Wood Chip-Fired Appliance Particulate Physico-chemical Properties and Induced Cell DeathAtmospheric Environment, 86, 129–139.

Meyer C.P., Luhar A., Gillett R., Keywoods M. (2008). Measurement of Real-World PM10 Emission Factors and Emission Profiles from Woodheaters by In Situ Source Monitoring and Atmospheric Verification Methods. Final Report of Clean Air Research Project 16 for Australian Commonwealth Department of the Environment Water Heritage and the Arts.

Nalin F., Golly B., Bescombes J., Pelletier C., Aujay-Plouzeau R., Verlhac S., et al. (2016). Fast Oxidation Processes from Emission to Ambient Air Introduction of Aerosol Emitted by Residential Log Wood StovesAtmospheric Environment, 143, 15–26.

Ozgen S., Caserini S., Galante S., Giugliano M., Angelino E, Marongiu A., Hugony F., Migliavacca G., Morreale C. (2014). Emission Factors from Small Scale Appliances Burning Wood and PelletsAtmospheric Environment, 94, 144–153.

Purvis C.R., McCrillis R.C., Kariher P.H. (2000) Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Organic Speciation of Fireplace EmissionsEnvironmental Science and Technology, 34(9), 1653-1658.

Rector L.R., Allen G., Hopke P.K., Chandrasekaran S.R., Lin L. (2013). Elemental Analysis of Wood Fuels. Report prepared by NESCAUM for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

Robinson D.L. (2016). What Makes a Successful Woodsmoke-Reduction Program? Air Quality and Climate Change, 50(3), 20–28.

Salthammer T., Schripp T., Wientzek S., Wensing M. (2014). Impact of Operating Wood-Burning Fireplace Ovens on Indoor Air QualityChemosphere, 103, 205-211.

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Stabile L., Buonanno G., Avino P., Frattolillo A., Guerriero E. (2018). Indoor Exposure to Particles Emitted by Biomass-Burning Heating Systems and Evaluation of Dose and Lung Cancer Risk Received by PopulationEnvironmental Pollution, 235, 65–73.

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Uski O.J., Jalava P., Happo M.S., Leskinen J., Sippula O., Tissari J., Mäki-Paakkanen J., et al. (2014). Different Toxic Mechanisms are Activated by Emission PM Depending on Combustion EfficiencyAtmospheric Environment, 89, 623–632.

Venturini E., Vassura I., Zanetti C., Pizzi A., Toscano G., Passarini F. (2015). Evaluation of Non-steady State Condition Contribution to the Total Emissions of Residential Wood Pellet StoveEnergy, 88, 650–657.

Win K.M., Persson T., Bales C. (2012). Particles and Gaseous Emissions from Realistic Operation of Residential Wood Pellet Heating SystemsAtmospheric Environment, 59, 320–327.

Wu C.Y., Herschberger L., Bael D., Fenske M.J., Palmer K. (2015). Lessons Learned from the Residential Wood Combustion Surveys. (PDF) Slide Presentation to the 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference “Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions.” U.S. EPA.

See also references for Wood Stove Changeouts

מסעדות ואזורים ציבוריים

Ahmed M.T., Hadi E.A., El Samahy S., Youssof K. (2000). The Influence of Baking Fuel on Residues of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in BreadJournal of Hazardous Materials. 80(1–3), 1–8.

Akpambang V., Purcaro G., Lajide L., Amoo I., Conte L., et al. (2009). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Commonly Consumed Nigerian Smoked/Grilled Fish and MeatFood Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 26(7), 1096–1103.

Anderson K.E., Sinha R., Kulldorff M., Gross M., Lang N.P, Barber C., Harnack L, et al. (2002). Meat Intake and Cooking Techniques: Associations with Pancreatic Cancer. Mutation Research/Fundamental Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 506–507, 225–231.

Badyda A.J., Widziewicz K., Rogula-Kozłowska W., Majewski G., Jureczko I. (2017) Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal BriquettesAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, Boston, MA.

Buonanno G., Morawska L., Stabile L., Viola A. (2010). Exposure to Particle Number, Surface Area and PM Concentrations in PizzeriasAtmospheric Environment, 44(32), 3963–3969.

City of Cambridge Public Health Department (2017, June 19). Order Regarding Use of Solid Fuel (Wood and Charcoal) as a Cooking Source at Shepard Restaurant and Bar.

Chen J., Wang S., Hsieh D., Yang H., Lee H. (2012). Carcinogenic Potencies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Back-Door Neighbors of Restaurants with Cooking EmissionsScience of the Total Environment, 417–418 : 68–75.

Conti K. (2017, 15 May). Neighbors Clash over Cambridge Restaurant’s SmokeThe Boston Globe. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com.

Conti K. (2017, 19 June). Following Complaints, Cambridge Restaurant Ordered to Stop Cooking with Charcoal and WoodThe Boston Globe. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com.

Daniel C.R., Schwartz K.L., Colt J.S., Dong L.M., Ruterbusch J.J., et al. (2011). Meat-cooking Mutagens and Risk of Renal Cell CarcinomaBritish Journal of Cancer, 105, 1096–1104.

Farhadian A., Jinap S., Abas F., Sakar Z. (2010). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Grilled MeatFood Control, 21(5), 606–610.

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Gianelle V., Colombi C., Caserini S., Ozgen S., Galante S., Marongiu A., Lanzani G. (2013). Benzo(a)pyrene Air Concentrations and Emission Inventory in Lombardy Region, ItalyAtmospheric Pollution Research, 4(3), 257–266.

Horton D. Fire Risk from Solid Fuel Commercial Cooking. Consultant's report.

Hyland A., Barnoya J., Corral J.E. (2012). Smoke-Free Air Policies: Past, Present and FutureTobacco Control, 21, 154–161.

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Kabir E., Kim K., Ahn J. Hong O., Sohn J.R. (2010). Barbecue Charcoal Combustion as a Potential Source of Aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds and CarbonylsJournal of Hazardous Materials, 174(1–3), 492–499.

Kumar P., Andrade M.F., Ynoue R.Y., Fornaro A., Dias de Freitas E., Martins J., et al. (2016). New Directions: From Biofuels to Wood Stoves: The Modern and Ancient Air Quality Challenges in the Megacity of São PauloAtmospheric Environment, 140, 364–369.

Lalonde M. (2017, 20 June). Montreal Bagels and the Pollution ProblemMontreal Gazette. Retrieved from http://montrealgazette.com.

Lao J., Xie S., Wu C., Bao L., Tao S., Zeng E. (2018). Importance of Dermal Absorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Derived from Barbecue FumesEnvironmental Science & Technology, E-pub ahead of print.

Lee H., Wang Q., Yang F., Tao P., Li H., et al. (2012). SULT1A1 Arg213His Polymorphism, Smoked Meat, and Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Meta-AnalysisDNA and Cell Biology, 31(5), 688–699.

McCart M. (2015, October 23). Hotel Monaco Restaurant Ordered to Pay $4,850 fine for Violating Air Pollution Enforcement OrderPittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.pittsburgpost-gazette.com/life/food.

National Cancer Institute. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov.

Olsson M., Petersson G. (2003). Benzene emitted from glowing charcoalScience of The Total Environment. 303(3), 215–220.

Rey-Salgueiro L., García-Falcón M., Martinez-Carballo E., Simal-Gándara J. (2008). Effects of Toasting Procedures on the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toasted BreadFood Chemistry, 108(2), 607–615.

Sturgis C. (2011, January 30). Neighbors of Hopewell's Nomad Pizzeria Complain of Toxins, Soot from Pizza Oven. Retrieved from: www.nj.com.

Susaya J., Kim K., Ahn J., Jung M., Kang C. (2010). BBQ Charcoal Combustion as an Important Source of Trace Metal Exposure to HumansJournal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1–3), 932–937.

White A.J., Bradshaw P.T., Herring A.H., Teitelbaum S.L., Beyea J., Stellman S.D., et al. (2016). Exposure to Multiple Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer IncidenceEnvironment International, 89–90, 185–192.

Wu C., Bao L., Guo Y., Li S., Zeng E.Y. (2015). Barbecue Fumes: An Overlooked Source of Health Hazards in Outdoor Settings? Environmental Science and Technology, 49(17), 10607–10615.

סביבה ואקלים

Alves C., Gonçalves C., Fernandes A.P., Tarelho L., Pio C. (2011). Fireplace and Woodstove Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion of Western Mediterranean Wood TypesAtmospheric Research, 101(3), 692–700.

Ahlers C.D. (2016). Wood Burning, Biomass, Air Pollution, and Climate Change. Environmental Law, Vol 46; Vermont Law School Research Paper No. 4–16.

Australian Air Quality Group. Most Effective Ways to Reduce Your Global Warming. Retrieved from woodsmoke.3sc.net.

Bahadur R., Praveen P.S., Xu Y., Ramanathan V. (2012). Solar Absorption by Elemental and Brown Carbon Determined from Spectrual ObservationsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(43), 17366–17371.

Beaudoin K.J. (2014). Reducing Black Carbon from Wood Burning in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Law Review, 31(87–103).

Bond T.C., Doherty S.J, Fahey D.W., Forster P.M., Bernstein T., et al. (2013). Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific AssessmentJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 118, 5380–5552.

Bourcier L., Sellegri K., Masson O., Zangrando R., Barbante C., Gambaro A., Pichon J.M., Boulon, J., Laj P. (2010). Experimental Evidence of Biomass Burning as a Source of Atmospheric 137Cs, Puy de Dôme (1465 m a.s.l.), FranceAtmospheric Environment, 44(19), 2280–2286.

Chen Y., Bond T.C. (2010). Light Absorption by Organic Carbon from Wood CombustionAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 1773–1787.

Cooper J.A. (1980). Environmental Impact of Residential Wood Combustion Emissions and its ImplicationsJournal of the Air Pollution Control Association, (30)8, 855–861.

Denier van der Gon H.A.C., Bergström R., Fountoukis C., Johansson C., Pandis S.N., et al. (2015). Particulate Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion in Europe – Revised Estimates and an EvaluationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

European Commission (2015). Paris Agreement. Retrieved from ec.europa.eu.

Fernandes A.P., Alves C.A., Gonçalves C., Tarelho L., Pio C., Schmidl C., Bauer H. Emission Factors from Residential Combustion Appliances Burning Portuguese Biomass FuelsJournal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 3196-3206.

Gilardoni S., Massoli P., Paglione M., Giulianelli L., Carbone C., Rinaldi M., et al. (2016). Direct Observation of Aqueous Secondary Organic Aerosol from Biomass-Burning EmissionsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(36), 10013–10018.

Herich H., Hueglin C., Buchmann B. (2011). A 2.5 Year’s Source Apportionment Study of Black Carbon from Wood Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion at Urban and Rural Sites in SwitzerlandAtmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4, 1409–1420.

Highwood E.J., Kinnersley R.P. (2006). When Smoke Gets in Our Eyes: The Multiple Impacts of Atmospheric Black Carbon on Climate, Air Quality and HealthEnvironment International, 32(4), 560–566.

Holden A., Sullivan A., Munchak L., Kreidenweis S., Schichtel B., et al. (2011). Determining Contributions of Biomass Burning and Other Sources to Fine Particle Contemporary Carbon in the Western United StatesAtmospheric Environment, 45(11), 1986-1993.

Iinuma Y., Böge O., Gräfe R., Herrmann H. (2010). Methyl-Nitrocatechols: Atmospheric Tracer Compounds for Biomass Burning Secondary Organic AerosolsEnvironmental Science & Technology, 44(22), 8453.

IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. (PDF of full report available)

Kirchstetter T.W., Thatcher T.L. (2012). Contribution of Organic Carbon to Wood Smoke Particulate Matter Absorption of Solar RadiationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 6067–6072.

Leturcq P. (2013). Wood Preservation (Carbon Sequestration) or Wood Burning (Fossil-Fuel Substitution), Which is Better for Mitigating Climate Change? Annals of Forest Science, 71(2), 117–124.

Maenhaut W., Vermeylen R., Claeys M., Vercauteren J., Matheeussen C., et al. (2012). Assessment of the Contribution from Wood Burning to the PM10 Aerosol in Flanders, BelgiumThe Science of the Total Environment, 437, 226-236.

Martinsson J., Eriksson A.C., Nielsen I.E., Malmborg V.B., Ahlberg E., et al. (2015). Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion AerosolEnvironmental Science and Technology, 49, 14663−14671.

Meissner K., Alexander K. (2016). Mass Extinctions and Climate Change: Why the Speed of Rising Greenhouse Gases MattersThe Conversation. Retrieved from theconversation.com.

Meissner K., Alexander K., Mohr C., Lopez-Hilfiker F., Zotter P., Prevot A., Xu L., et al. (2013). Contribution of Nitrated Phenols to Wood Burning Brown Carbon Light Absorption in Detling, United Kingdom During Winter TimeEnvironmental Science & Technology, 47(12), 6316.

Molina M., Ramanathan V., Zaelke D. (2016). Paris Deal’s Carbon Cuts Miss Critical Warming TargetThe Energy Collective, retrieved from www.theenergycollective.com.

Olivares G., Ström J., Johansson C., Gidhagen L. (2008). Estimates of Black Carbon and Size-Resolved Particle Number Emission Factors from Residential Wood Burning Based on Ambient Monitoring and Model Simulations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 58(6), 838-848.

Rau J. Composition and Size Distribution of Residential Wood Smoke Particles. (1989). Aerosol Science and Technology, 10(1), 181–192.

Rehman I.H., Ahmed T., Praveen P.S., Kar A., Ramanathan V. (2011). Black Carbon Emissions from Biomass and Fossil Fuels in Rural IndiaAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 7289–7299.

Robinson D. (2011). Australian Wood Heaters Currently Increase Global Warming and Health CostsAtmospheric Pollution Research, 2(3), 267–274.

Samburova V., Connolly J., Gyawall M., Yatavelli R.L., Watts A.C., Chakrabarty R.K., Zielinska B., et al. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biomass-burning emissions and their contribution to light absorption and aerosol toxicityThe Science of the Total Environment, 568:391–401.

Turóczi B., Hoffer A., Tóth Á., Kováts N., Ács A., Ferincz Á., Kovács A., Gelencsér A. (2012). Comparative Assessment of Ecotoxicity of Urban AerosolAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 7365–7370.

UNEP (2011). Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya, 78pp.

US EPA (2010). Report to Congress on Black Carbon (PDF).

Venkataraman C., Habib G., Eiguren-Fernandez A., Miguel A., Friedlander S. (2005). Residential Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate ImpactsScience, 307(5714), 1454–1456.

WHO. Reducing Global Health Risks Through Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants. Retrieved from www.who.int.

Zeng N. (2008). Carbon Sequestration Via Wood BurialCarbon Balance and Management, 3(1).

See also references for Toxins.

תוכניות החלפת קמיני עץ ישנים

Allen R., Leckie S., Brauer M. (2009). The Impact of Stove Technology Upgrades on Indoor Residential Air QualityAtmospheric Environment, 43(37), 5908–5915.

B.C. Wood Stove Exchange Program: Program Evaluation (2008 to 2014) (2015). Pinna Sustainability Inc.

Bell M. L., Belanger K., Ebisu K., Gent J. F., Leaderer B.P. (2012). Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During GestationEnvironmental Research, 117, 83–89.

Bergauff M., Ward T.J., Noonan C.W., Palmer C.P. (2009). The Effect of a Woodstove Changeout on Ambient Levels of PM2.5 and Chemical Tracers for Woodsmoke in Libby, MontanaAtmospheric Environment, 43(18), 2938–2943.

Cuff D. (2016, August 29). Fireplace Replacement Rebates Snapped Up in a DayThe Mercury News. Retrieved from http://www.mercurynews.com.

Forcey T. (2015). The Cheapest Way to Heat Your Home with Renewable Energy – Just Flick a Switch. The Conversation. Retrieved from theconversation.com.

Johnston F.H., Hanigan I.C., Henderson S.B., Morgan G.G. (2013). Evaluation of Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke on Mortality in Launceston, Australia: Retrospective Analysis of Daily Mortality, 1994-2007BMJ, 346:e8446.

Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Montana Air Quality Nonattainment Status. (Accessed June 5, 2016).

Newsham J. (October 6, 2014). As Electricity Costs Rise, Market for Heat Pumps Takes OffBoston Globe. Retrieved from bostonglobe.com.

Noonan C., Navidi W., Sheppard L., Palmer C., Bergauff M., et al. (2012). Residential Indoor PM2.5 in Wood Stove Homes: Follow-up of the Libby Changeout Program.  Indoor Air, 22(6), 492–500.

Robinson D., Monro J., Campbell E. (2007). Spatial Variability and Population Exposure to PM2.5Pollution from Woodsmoke in a New South Wales Country TownAtmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5464–5478.

Söderberg T., Johansson A., Gref R. (1996). Toxic Effects of Some Conifer Resin Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Human Epithelial and Fibroblast CellsToxicology, 107(2), 99–109.

Ward T., Palmer C., Noonan C. (2010). Fine Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Following a Large Woodstove Changeout Program in Libby, MontanaJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60(6), 688.

Ward T., Palmer C., Bergauff M., Jayanty R., Noonan C. (2011). Organic/Elemental Carbon and Woodsmoke Tracer Concentrations Following a Community Wide Woodstove Changeout ProgramAtmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5554–5560.

Ward T., Palmer C.P., Hooper K., Bergauff M., Noonan C.W. (2013). The Impact of a Community-Wide Woodstove Changeout Intervention on Air Quality within Two Schools. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4, 238–244.

See also references for Residential Sources.

מדידות זיהום אוויר על ידי אזרחים

Nair P. (2017, June 29) Don’t Like How Your Government Tracks Air Pollution? Do It Yourself. Retrieved from https://ensia.com.

PurpleAir laser particle counters and air quality monitoring network

US EPA. Air Sensor Toolbox for Citizen Scientists, Researchers and Developers.

ארגונים ומידע כללי

Australian Air Quality Group: Woodsmoke information

The Biomass Monitor

Breathe Clean Air Comox Valley

Burning Issues

Connecticut Residents Against Wood Smoke Pollution

Danish Ecological Council (2016). Pollution from Residential Burning: Danish Experience in an International Perspective (PDF download)

Environment & Human Health, Inc: Information on Wood Smoke

Families for Clean Air

Gabriola Clean Air Society (blog)

Only Clean Air (blog)

Partnership for Policy Integrity: Information on biomass energy

Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment (UPHE): information and a report on wood burning